applicants to harsher entrance examinations. 133 Tensions grew between the union-wide authorities under Gorbachev, reformists led in Russia by Boris Yeltsin and controlling the newly elected Supreme Soviet of the Russian sfsr, and communist hardliners. Office of the Historian. (October 2018) Politics Main articles: Politics of the Soviet Union and Ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union There were three power hierarchies in the Soviet Union: the legislature represented by the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union. The stated purpose of the one-party state was to ensure that capitalist exploitation would not return to the Soviet Union and that the principles of democratic centralism would be most effective in representing the people's will in a practical manner. And annotated by Alexis Klimoff. The Soviet Union bound its satellite states in a military alliance, the Warsaw Pact, in 1955, and an economic organization, The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance or Comecon, a counterpart to the European Economic Community, from 1949 to 1991. The domination was so absolute that for most of the Soviet Union's existence, it was commonly (but incorrectly) referred to as "Russia". 200 All citizens of the ussr had their own ethnic affiliation. 220 The general tendency of this period was an increase in religious activity among believers of all faiths. 162 However, due to bad maintenance, much of the road, water and Soviet civil aviation transport were outdated and technologically backward compared to the First World. 161 In 1991, the Soviet Union had a pipeline network of 82,000 kilometres (51,000 mi) for crude oil and another 206,500 kilometres (128,300 mi) for natural gas.